Where seen? According to Ng, in Singapore, there is only
one treelet found at Sungei Tampines. Occupies a narrow niche in the
mangrove forest; occuring in the back mangrove communities or on the
banks of tidal rivers farther inland. According to Hsuan Keng, it
was rare and found in Kranji and Pasir Ris. According to Tomlinson,
it is found from the Ganges Delta, Myanmar through Southeast Asia
to China, the Ryu Kyu Islands and southern Japan. In the south, it
is restricted to Sumatra and northern Borneo. It occupies a narrow
niche, typically in the back mangrove or on banks of tidal rivers
further inland. It is nowhere abundant. It was previously known as
Features: A small shrub or tree
growing to 7m tall. No buttresses or pneumatophores. Bark smooth,
greyish or reddish brown.
Leaves narrow oblong or oval (7-12cm), glossy, arranged
opposite one another. Leaf stalks sometimes pinkish. Stipules flattened but slightly twisted at the
Flowers (1.5-2cm long) white, calyx usually with 5-6 slender lobes,
in clusters of usually 4 up to 9 flowers. According to Tomlinson,
the flowers are pollinated by insects as nectar is secreted in the
well developed calyx cup. He adds that the flowers attract a diversity
of small flying insects.
Propagule slender (25-40cm long) and tapered at each end, capped by
the persistent sepals whose tips bend backwards to the fruit stalk.
uses: According to Burkill, the timber is too small for
any real value and it only used for firewood.
Status and threats: This plant
is listed as 'Critically Endangered' on the Red List of threatened
plants of Singapore.
Pasir Ris, Aug 09
washed up on the shore.
Changi, Oct 11
Pinkish leaf stlaks, flattened stipule.
on Singapore shores
- Hsuan Keng,
S.C. Chin and H. T. W. Tan. 1990, The
Concise Flora of Singapore: Gymnosperms and Dicotyledons.
Singapore University Press. 222 pp.
E. J. H., 1997. Wayside
Trees of Malaya: in two volumes.
Fourth edition, Malayan Nature Society, Kuala Lumpur. Volume 1:
1-476 pp, plates 1-38; volume 2: 477-861 pp., plates 139-236.
P. B., 1986. The
Botany of Mangroves
Cambridge University Press. USA. 419 pp.
G.W. H. and P. K. L. Ng and Ho Hua Chew, 2008. The Singapore
Red Data Book: Threatened plants and animals of Singapore.
Nature Society (Singapore). 285 pp.
I. H., 1993. A
Dictionary of the Economic Products of the Malay Peninsula.
3rd printing. Publication Unit, Ministry of Agriculture, Malaysia,
Kuala Lumpur. Volume 1: 1-1240; volume 2: 1241-2444.