Where seen? This pretty plant with plasticky leaves and
tiny white flowers is sometimes seen in our mangroves. It is found
in the back mangroves, preferring sandy or hard mud areas. Also on
shores and waterways with freshwater influence. It can tolerate more
saline conditions than Teruntum merah (Lumnitzera
littorea). There are some large old trees at Kranji Nature Trail.
Features: Shrubs or tree up to
8m tall. Bark reddish-brown and fissured. Has no pneumatophores.
Leaves spoon-shaped (2-10cm), scalloped edge and a small notch at
the tip, thick and fleshy, arranged alternately in a spiral. Flowers
small (1-2cm) in bunches, white with five tiny petals. The flowers
are weakly scented and produce lots of nectar. According to Tomlinson,
this species appear to be pollinated by day-active wasps, bees, butterflies
The small fruits are ribbed, fibrous and float, and dispersed by water.
Each fruit contains one seed.
Sometimes mistaken for Chengam
According to Giesen, although occurring throughout Malaysia and Indonesia,
L. littorea and L. racemosa practically exclude each
other in habitat and have never been collected in exactly the same
stand. The exact cause of this different ecological behaviour is not
uses: According to Burkill, the timber has similar properties
as that of Teruntum merah (Lumnitzera
littorea) but because it is a smaller plant it is less useful.
Status and threats: It is listed
as 'Endangered' on the Red List of threatened plants of Singapore.
Mandai, Mar 11
Pulau Ubin, Aug 03
PulauSemakau, Dec 08
Pulau Semakau, Dec 08
White flowers, stamens same length as petals.
Pulau Ubin, Aug 03
putih on Singapore shores
- Hsuan Keng,
S.C. Chin and H. T. W. Tan. 1990, The
Concise Flora of Singapore: Gymnosperms and Dicotyledons.
Singapore University Press. 222 pp.
E. J. H., 1997. Wayside
Trees of Malaya: in two volumes.
Fourth edition, Malayan Nature Society, Kuala Lumpur. Volume 1:
1-476 pp, plates 1-38; volume 2: 477-861 pp., plates 139-236.
P. B., 1986. The
Botany of Mangroves Cambridge University Press. USA. 419 pp.
G.W. H. and P. K. L. Ng and Ho Hua Chew, 2008. The Singapore
Red Data Book: Threatened plants and animals of Singapore.
Nature Society (Singapore). 285 pp.
- Ng, Peter
K. L. and Wang Luan Keng and Kelvin K. P. Lim, 2008. Private
Lives: An Expose of Singapore's Mangroves. The Raffles
Museum of Biodiversity Research . 249 pp.
I. H., 1993. A
Dictionary of the Economic Products of the Malay Peninsula.
3rd printing. Publication Unit, Ministry of Agriculture, Malaysia,
Kuala Lumpur. Volume 1: 1-1240; volume 2: 1241-2444.