seen? This rare lime-look-alike is found in the back mangroves,
growing under mangrove trees. According to Hsuan Keng, they were found
in Jurong and Kranji, while according to Ng, they were found in Sungei
Mandai Besar and Sungei Mandai Kecil. According to Corners it is frequently
seen in mangrove swamps in Southern Malaya. While Tomlison says they
are also found on river banks but 'rather scattered'. It was previously
known as Paramignya longispina. The malay name 'lelang' refers
to the talons of the hawk, probably referring to the thorns of the
A thorny shrub to about 3m tall, or scrambling plant. Leaves leathery,
arranged alternately. The leaves (7-16cm long) give off a lime-like
smell when crushed. There are stout spines in pairs or singly. Flowers
small with 5 white petals, fragrant, one appearing in the leaf angles.
Fruits (2.5-4cm) yellow, resembling a small lemon with three flat
sides. They contain large, long, flattened seeds.
uses: The plant is valued by the Malays for medicinal purposes.
According to Burkill, the roots are used to treat abdominal pains,
and in childbirth treatment. A lotion of it is used to treat syphilis.
Status and threats: It is listed
as 'Critically Endangered' in the Red List of threatened plants of
Trail, Apr 10
Small white flowers.
Mandai, Mar 11
Trail, Dec 10
lelang on Singapore shores
- Hsuan Keng,
S.C. Chin and H. T. W. Tan.1998, The
Concise Flora of Singapore II: Monoctyledons
Singapore University Press. 215 pp.
P. B., 1986. The
Botany of Mangroves
Cambridge University Press. USA. 419 pp.
I. H., 1993. A
Dictionary of the Economic Products of the Malay Peninsula.
3rd printing. Publication Unit, Ministry of Agriculture, Malaysia,
Kuala Lumpur. Volume 1: 1-1240; volume 2: 1241-2444.
G.W. H. and P. K. L. Ng and Ho Hua Chew, 2008. The Singapore
Red Data Book: Threatened plants and animals of Singapore.
Nature Society (Singapore). 285 pp.