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Phylum Mollusca > Class Gastropoda > sea slugs > Order Nudibranchia
Orange-spotted gymnodoris nudibranch
Gymnodoris rubropapulosa
Family Gymnodorididae
updated Sep 12
Where seen? This rather clownish white nudibranch with orange spots is sometimes seen on some of our shores. They appear to be seasonally common; at some times, several can be seen during a visit.

Features: 2.5-4cm long. Body white with orange bumps. Rhinophores orange, the 'face' with orange bumps on the edge, gills edged in orange. According to Rudman, compared to Gymnodoris ceylonica, it has much larger orange spots which are more densely arranged, the body is longer and gills relatively small. There are also major anatomical differences. It has a wide Indo-West Pacific distribution and is known from Indonesia and Singapore and recently reported from Hong Kong and Tanzania. Its comical patterns may warn other animals not to mess with it. Some Gymnodoris nudibranchs secrete nasty acids and chemicals.

What does it eat?
Gymnodoris species are said to be 'voracious predators' of other sea slugs like nudibranchs, sacoglossans and sea hares. Among its prey is Ceratosoma sp.

Pulau Semakau, Sep 05

Pulau Ular, Apr 06

Orange-spotted gymnodoris nudibranchs on Singapore shores

Photos of Orange-spotted gymnodoris nudibranchs for free download from wildsingapore flickr

Distribution in Singapore on this wildsingapore flickr map

St. John's Island , Apr 12
Photo shared by Loh Kok Sheng on his blog.

Terumbu Raya, Jul 09
Photo shared by James Koh on his blog.

Beting Bemban Besar, Nov 14
Photo shared by Marcus Ng on facebook.

Beting Bemban Besar, Mar 12

Terumbu Berkas, Jan 10

  • Tan Siong Kiat and Henrietta P. M. Woo, 2010 Preliminary Checklist of The Molluscs of Singapore (pdf), Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore.
  • Chou, L. M., 1998. A Guide to the Coral Reef Life of Singapore. Singapore Science Centre. 128 pages.
  • Debelius, Helmut, 2001. Nudibranchs and Sea Snails: Indo-Pacific Field Guide IKAN-Unterwasserachiv, Frankfurt. 321 pp.
  • Wells, Fred E. and Clayton W. Bryce. 2000. Slugs of Western Australia: A guide to the species from the Indian to West Pacific Oceans. Western Australian Museum. 184 pp.
  • Coleman, Neville. 2001. 1001 Nudibranchs: Catalogue of Indo-Pacific Sea Slugs. Neville Coleman's Underwater Geographic Pty Ltd, Australia.144pp.
  • Coleman, Neville, 1989. Nudibranchs of the South Pacific Vol 1. 64 pp.
  • Humann, Paul and Ned Deloach. 2010. Reef Creature Identification: Tropical Pacific New World Publications. 497pp.
  • Gosliner, Terrence M., David W. Behrens and Gary C. Williams. 1996. Coral Reef Animals of the Indo-Pacific: Animal life from Africa to Hawaii exclusive of the vertebrates Sea Challengers. 314pp.
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