This rather clownish white nudibranch with orange spots is sometimes
seen on some of our shores. They appear to be seasonally common; at
some times, several can be seen during a visit.
Features: 2.5-4cm long. Body white
with orange bumps. Rhinophores orange, the 'face' with orange bumps
on the edge, gills edged in orange. According to Rudman,
compared to Gymnodoris ceylonica, it has much larger orange
spots which are more densely arranged, the body is longer and gills
relatively small. There are also major anatomical differences. It
has a wide Indo-West Pacific distribution and is known from Indonesia
and Singapore and recently reported from Hong Kong and Tanzania. Its
comical patterns may warn other animals not to mess with it. Some
Gymnodoris nudibranchs secrete nasty acids and chemicals.
What does it eat? Gymnodoris species are said to be 'voracious
predators' of other sea slugs like nudibranchs,
sacoglossans and sea
hares. Among its prey is Ceratosoma
gymnodoris nudibranchs on Singapore shores
photos of orange-spotted nudibranchs on Singapore shores
- Tan Siong
Kiat and Henrietta P. M. Woo, 2010 Preliminary
Checklist of The Molluscs of Singapore (pdf), Raffles
Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore.
Helmut, 2001. Nudibranchs
and Sea Snails: Indo-Pacific Field Guide
IKAN-Unterwasserachiv, Frankfurt. 321 pp.
- Wells, Fred
E. and Clayton W. Bryce. 2000. Slugs
of Western Australia: A guide to the species from the Indian to
West Pacific Oceans.
Western Australian Museum. 184 pp.
Neville. 2001. 1001
Nudibranchs: Catalogue of Indo-Pacific Sea Slugs. Neville
Coleman’s Underwater Geographic Pty Ltd, Australia.144pp.
Neville, 1989. Nudibranchs
of the South Pacific Vol 1. 64 pp.
- Humann, Paul
and Ned Deloach. 2010. Reef
Creature Identification: Tropical Pacific New World Publications.
Terrence M., David W. Behrens and Gary C. Williams. 1996. Coral
Reef Animals of the Indo-Pacific: Animal life from Africa to Hawai’I
exclusive of the vertebrates
Sea Challengers. 314pp.