seen? These slugs are commonly seen on many of our shores,
especially during a 'bloom' of their seaweed food. They appear to
be seasonal. Sometimes they are everywhere, at other times, none are
to be seen.
range from tiny ones 1cm long to larger ones 4cm long that resemble
pair of 'rolled up' tentacles, not solid tentacles like other slugs.
A pair of 'wings' or flaps (called parapodia) surround the long narrow
body. These are sometimes ruffled.
Elysia slugs lack shells.
What do they eat? They
eat seaweeds. More details on how they feed
in the fact sheet on the Sacoglossans in general.
food factories: Some elysia slugs retain the algae's chloroplasts
(the part that contains chlorophyll). These chloroplasts continue
to carry out photosynthesis inside the slug and provide the slug with
extra nutrients. It
gets its bright green colour from the choloplasts that it retains
from its seaweed food. The chloroplasts are distributed throughout
the parapodia and in the body wall in fine branches of the gut.
Not green, perhaps not fed yet?
Sentosa, Apr 04
Mating Elysia slugs.
St. John's Island, May 05
slugs on Singapore shores
Elysiidae recorded for Singapore
from Tan Siong
Kiat and Henrietta P. M. Woo, 2010 Preliminary Checklist of The
Molluscs of Singapore.
*Large mangrove-dwelling Elysia species in Asia, with descriptions
of two new species (Gastropoda: Opistobranchia: Sacoglossa). Cornelis
(Kees) Swennen. Pp. 29–37 [pdf,
+from our observation
slugs seen awaiting identification
are difficult to positively identify without close examination.
On this website, they are grouped by external features for convenience
- Tan Siong
Kiat and Henrietta P. M. Woo, 2010 Preliminary
Checklist of The Molluscs of Singapore (pdf), Raffles
Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore.
- Wee Y.C.
and Peter K. L. Ng. 1994. A First Look at Biodiversity in Singapore.
National Council on the Environment. 163pp.
Helmut, 2001. Nudibranchs
and Sea Snails: Indo-Pacific Field Guide
IKAN-Unterwasserachiv, Frankfurt. 321 pp.
- Wells, Fred
E. and Clayton W. Bryce. 2000. Slugs
of Western Australia: A guide to the species from the Indian to
West Pacific Oceans.
Western Australian Museum. 184 pp.
Neville. 2001. 1001
Nudibranchs: Catalogue of Indo-Pacific Sea Slugs. Neville
Coleman’s Underwater Geographic Pty Ltd, Australia.144pp.
- Kuiter, Rudie
H and Helmut Debelius. 2009. World
Atlas of Marine Fauna
. IKAN-Unterwasserachiv. 723pp.
- Humann, Paul
and Ned Deloach. 2010. Reef
Creature Identification: Tropical Pacific New World Publications.