hard corals text index | photo index
Phylum Cnidaria > Class Anthozoa > Subclass Zoantharia/Hexacorallia > Order Scleractinia > Family Agariciidae
Lettuce coral
Pavona sp.*
Family Agariciidae
updated Oct 2016
Where seen? This leafy lettuce-like hard coral is sometimes seen on some of our Southern shores.

Features: Colonies may be small (10-15cm), generally forming a rounded shape with a compact leafy structure that gives them their common name. Some colonies may be much larger (30-40cm) with broader flat blades forming more open shapes.

The corallites are found in shallow depressions. sometimes separated by ridges that result in a distrinctive, fine, intricate pattern of short lines on the surface of the coral. The skeleton is not covered in thick tissue. The tiny polyps appear on both sides of the leaf-like blades. The tentacles are spindly and pointed. When extended at night, the tentacles give the colony a prickly appearance. Long sweeper tentacles may be produced. Colours seen include brown, blue sometimes with tinges of other colours.

Living among lettuce: The leafy structures are perfect hiding places for fishes. Fan worms and tiny clams are sometimes also seen living among the 'leaves'.

Status and threats: The IUCN global listing for the species recorded Pavona cactus and Pavona decussata as Vulnerable.

Pulau Hantu, Apr 06

Butterflyfish hiding among the 'leaves'.
Pulau Hantu, Apr 06

Fanworm between two 'leaves'
Sisters Island, Jun 07


Terumbu Semakau, May 12

Terumbu Raya, Feb 09

Terumbu Bemban, Jul 11


Pulau Hantu, Apr 06

Raffles Lighthouse, May 04

Sisters Island, Jul 04


Sisters Island, Jun 07

Pulau Hantu, Jan 10

Terumbu Pempang Laut, Aug 10

*Species are difficult to positively identify without close examination.
On this website, they are grouped by external features for convenience of display.

Lettuce corals on Singapore shores

Photos of Lettuce corals for free download from wildsingapore flickr

Distribution in Singapore on this wildsingapore flickr map


Tanah Merah, May 09

Photo shared by Loh Kok Sheng on his blog.

Tanah Merah, May 09

Photo shared by Loh Kok Sheng on his blog.

Tanah Merah, Jun 10

Photo shared by Loh Kok Sheng on his flickr.


Tanah Merah Ferry Terminal, Jun 15
Photo shared by Loh Kok Sheng on facebook.

Tanah Merah Ferry Terminal, Jun 15
Photo shared by Loh Kok Sheng on facebook.
 


St Johns Island, Apr 16
Photo shared by Loh Kok Sheng on his blog.

Terumbu Semakau, Jun 10
Photo shared by Loh Kok Sheng on his blog.
 


Pulau Berkas, May 10
 

Pavona species recorded for Singapore
from Danwei Huang, Karenne P. P. Tun, L. M Chou and Peter A. Todd. 30 Dec 2009. An inventory of zooxanthellate sclerectinian corals in Singapore including 33 new records **the species found on many shores in Danwei's paper.
*Groups based on in Veron, Jen. 2000. Corals of the World.
in red are those listed as threatened on the IUCN global list.

  Family Agariciidae*
Genus Pavona
  Group 1: Forming leafy fronds or thin plates
Pavona cactus
(Vulnerable)
Pavona explanulata**
Pavona frondifera**
Pavona varians

Group 2: Do not form leafy shapes
Pavona decussata**
(Vulnerable)
Pavona clavus

Links

References
  • Danwei Huang, Karenne P. P. Tun, L. M Chou and Peter A. Todd. 30 Dec 2009. An inventory of zooxanthellate sclerectinian corals in Singapore including 33 new records (pdf). Raffles Bulletin of Zoology Supplement No. 22: 69-80.
  • Veron, Jen. 2000. Corals of the World Australian Institute of Marine Science, Australia. 3 volumes.
  • Chou, L. M., 1998. A Guide to the Coral Reef Life of Singapore. Singapore Science Centre. 128 pages.
  • Chou Loke Meng. 1989. Hard corals of Singapore. Reef Ecology Study Team, the National University of Singapore. A set of 4 posters.
  • Erhardt, Harry and Daniel Knop. 2005. Corals: Indo-Pacific Field Guide IKAN-Unterwasserachiv, Frankfurt. 305 pp.
  • Borneman, Eric H. 2001. Aquarium Corals: Selection, Husbandry and Natural History T.F. H Publications. 464 pp
  • Wee Y.C. and Peter K. L. Ng. 1994. A First Look at Biodiversity in Singapore. National Council on the Environment. 163pp.
  • Ng, P. K. L. & Y. C. Wee, 1994. The Singapore Red Data Book: Threatened Plants and Animals of Singapore. The Nature Society (Singapore), Singapore. 343 pp.
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