seen? These hard corals with conical bumps are sometimes
seen on some of our Southern shores, usually on remote and undisturbed
Colonies seen about 15-20cm across, sometimes 50cm in undisturbed
shores. The unique feature of these corals are the small conical mounds
(0.5cm or smaller), called monticules (also hydnae or hydnophores),
that form where the corallite walls of adjacent polyps fuse together.
Polyps have short blunt tentacles that surround the base of each monticule.
The tentacles that are usually extended only at night. Colours seen
include blue and brown.
Status and threats: Our horn corals
are not listed among the endangered animals of Singapore. However,
like other creatures of the intertidal zone, they are affected by
human activities such as reclamation and pollution. Trampling by careless
visitors, and over-collection also have an impact on local populations.
Raffles Lighthouse, Jun 07
Conical mounds called monticules.
Colony may be a combination of
encrusting and branching.
Sometimes forming short valleys.
Tentacles around the mounds.
corals on Singapore shores
species recorded for Singapore
Danwei Huang, Karenne P. P. Tun, L. M Chou and Peter A. Todd. 30 Dec
2009. An inventory of zooxanthellate sclerectinian corals in Singapore
including 33 new records **the species found on many shores in
in red are those listed as threatened
on the IUCN global list.
- Danwei Huang,
Karenne P. P. Tun, L. M Chou and Peter A. Todd. 30 Dec 2009. An
inventory of zooxanthellate sclerectinian corals in Singapore
including 33 new records (pdf). Raffles Bulletin of Zoology
Supplement No. 22: 69-80.
- Veron, Jen.
of the World Australian Institute of Marine Science, Australia. 3 volumes.
- Chou, L.
M., 1998. A
Guide to the Coral Reef Life of Singapore. Singapore Science
Centre. 128 pages.
Harry and Daniel Knop. 2005. Corals:
Indo-Pacific Field Guide IKAN-Unterwasserachiv, Frankfurt. 305 pp.
Eric H. 2001. Aquarium
Corals: Selection, Husbandry and Natural History T.F. H Publications. 464 pp