seen? These clams are sometimes seen our Southern shores,
What are file clams? File clams
are bivalves that belong to Family
Features: 4- 6cm. Long, fleshy
tentacles fringe the mantle which are sticky and detach easily when
touched. Some species are attached to a hard surface by byssus threads,
or building a nest lined with mingled byssal threads.
Like scallops (Family Pectinidae),
some file clam species can also 'swim'. They clap their shells together
using a strong adductor muscle, creating directed jets of water that
emerge from either side of the hinge and propels them in the opposite
direction. To distract the disturber, the clam may shed wriggling
tentacles. Unlike scallops, file clams can move using their tentacles
to 'row' with the shell in a vertical position.
do they eat? Like many other bivalves, file clams are
filter feeders. They use their siphons to suck in water and filter
out microscopic food. The water also brings fresh oxygen to the animal.
Limidae recorded for Singapore
Tan Siong Kiat and Henrietta P. M. Woo, 2010 Preliminary Checklist of
The Molluscs of Singapore.
*in red are those listed among
the threatened animals of Singapore from Ng,
P. K. L. & Y. C. Wee, 1994. The Singapore Red Data Book: Threatened Plants
and Animals of Singapore.
vulgaris (Common file clam) = Lima lima
Limaria sp. (Swimming file
Gladys Archerd Shell Collection at Washington State University Tri-Cities
Natural History Museum website:
brief description and photos.
File shell (Lima fragilis) on the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands
Multi-Agency Education Project: brief description and photo
shells (Lima lima) Tan, Leo W. H. & Ng, Peter K. L., 1988.
A Guide to Seashore
Life. The Singapore Science Centre, Singapore. 160 pp.
- Family Limidae
the Bivalves section by J.M. Poutiers in the FAO Species Identification
Guide for Fishery Purposes: The Living Marine Resources of the Western
Central Pacific Volume
1: Seaweeds, corals, bivalves and gastropods on the Food and Agriculture
Organization of the United Nations (FAO) website.
- Tan Siong Kiat
and Henrietta P. M. Woo, 2010 Preliminary
Checklist of The Molluscs of Singapore (pdf), Raffles Museum
of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore.
- Tan, K. S. &
L. M. Chou, 2000. A
Guide to the Common Seashells of Singapore. Singapore Science
Centre. 160 pp.
- Chou, L. M., 1998.
Guide to the Coral Reef Life of Singapore. Singapore Science
Centre. 128 pages.
- Wee Y.C. and Peter
K. L. Ng. 1994. A First Look at Biodiversity in Singapore. National
Council on the Environment. 163pp.
- Abbott, R. Tucker,
of South East Asia.
Graham Brash, Singapore. 145 pp.