seen? Some species are sometimes
seen on some of our shores.
What are sidegill slugs? Sidegill
slugs belong to Phylum Mollusca and Class Gastropoda like other snails.
Sidegill slugs belong to Order Notaspidae are NOT nudibranchs,
which belong to a different Order Nudibranchia.
Features: These slugs have a large
plume-like gill between the mantle and the foot, usually on the right
side of the body. They have a pair of tentacles (called rhinophores)
made up of rolled up skin, and a plough-shaped structure (called the
oral veil) in front of the head. Some
sidegill slugs have an internal shell, others an external shell while
one family does not have a shell at all. Many secrete sulphuric acid
to deter predators. Most are found in shallow waters.
What do they eat? These slugs are carnivorous and have
strong jaws with a broad radula. Most feed on sponges,
some also feed on hard corals and ascidians.
Some even eat other slugs and fishes.
Sidegill slugs of Singapore
|Other sightings on Singapore shores
Changi, May 17
Photo shared by Loh Kok Sheng on facebook.
Changi, May 17
Photo shared by Jianlin Liu on facebook.
Notaspidea recorded for Singapore
from Tan Siong
Kiat and Henrietta P. M. Woo, 2010 Preliminary Checklist of The
Molluscs of Singapore.
+from our observation
- Rene Ong, Tan Siong Kiat, Toh Chay Hoon, Martyn E.Y. Low & Henrietta P. M. Woo. 31 Mar 2017. First record of side-gilled slug, Berthellina delicata, in Singapore. Singapore Biodiversity Records 2017: 45-46.
- Tan Siong
Kiat and Henrietta P. M. Woo, 2010 Preliminary
Checklist of The Molluscs of Singapore (pdf), Raffles
Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore.
Helmut, 2001. Nudibranchs
and Sea Snails: Indo-Pacific Field Guide
IKAN-Unterwasserachiv, Frankfurt. 321 pp.
- Wells, Fred
E. and Clayton W. Bryce. 2000. Slugs
of Western Australia: A guide to the species from the Indian to
West Pacific Oceans.
Western Australian Museum. 184 pp.
Neville. 2001. 1001
Nudibranchs: Catalogue of Indo-Pacific Sea Slugs. Neville
Coleman's Underwater Geographic Pty Ltd, Australia.144pp.
Neville, 1989. Nudibranchs
of the South Pacific Vol 1. 64 pp.
- Kuiter, Rudie
H and Helmut Debelius. 2009. World
Atlas of Marine Fauna. IKAN-Unterwasserachiv. 723pp.
- Wee Y.C.
and Peter K. L. Ng. 1994. A First Look at Biodiversity in Singapore.
National Council on the Environment. 163pp.