seen? This hard coral that forms thick plates with large
fat polyps can grow in
murky water. So it is among the most commonly encountered hard corals on
many of our shores.
Features: Colonies up to 20-50cm, elsewhere said to reach several metres across.
Colony may be plates, thick (about 1cm) with polyps only on one side
of the plate, or columns with polyps on both sides. With the large
polyps slightly expanded, the colony looks like a flower-studded disk.
When fully expanded, the polyps may completely cover the 'bare' parts
betweeen them so the colony appears 'furry'. Colony may be flat and
disk-shaped, sometimes folded thus resembling a cabbage, or with columns
growing from the centre.
Corallites largest of the disk corals (average 0.6cm), crowded at
the edges but spaced apart elsewhere with a smooth surface in between
them. When the tissue is completely retracted, the corallite may look
like a shallow sunken cup, sometimes short tubes. The polyps are large
(1-1.5cm in diameter), fleshy with a thick body column, many opaque
long tentacles, and are usually colourful. Because the polyps are
usually widely spaced apart, they often look like small anemones with
a distinctive ring of tentacles surrounding a central mouth. Unlike
other Turbinaria species, the polyps are often expanded even
during the day.
Colony colour usually overall grey or brown but often with several
different muted colours displayed on one colony. For example, the
polyps may have a contrasting colour against a duller background plate
colour. Colours seen include various shades and combinations of orange,
pink, brown, yellow, green, blue and purple.
Sentosa, May 07
Cyrene Reef, Jun 08
in the centre of the disk.
St John's Island, Jan 06
*Species are difficult to positively identify without close examination.
On this website, they are grouped by external features for convenience of
disk corals on Singapore shores
|Other sightings on Singapore shores
Changi, Aug 19
Photo shared by Jianlin Liu on facebook.
Pulau Sekudu, Jun 17
Photo shared by Loh Kok Sheng on facebook.
Berlayar Creek, Oct 17
Photo shared by Abel Yeo on facebook.
Terumbu Selegie, Jun 11
Photo shared by Russel Low on facebook.
by James Koh on his
- Danwei Huang,
Karenne P. P. Tun, L. M Chou and Peter A. Todd. 30 Dec 2009. An
inventory of zooxanthellate sclerectinian corals in Singapore
including 33 new records (pdf). Raffles Bulletin of Zoology
Supplement No. 22: 69-80.
- Veron, Jen.
of the World
Australian Institute of Marine Science, Australia. 3 volumes.
- Chou, L.
M., 1998. A
Guide to the Coral Reef Life of Singapore. Singapore Science
Centre. 128 pages.
Harry and Daniel Knop. 2005. Corals:
Indo-Pacific Field Guide
IKAN-Unterwasserachiv, Frankfurt. 305 pp.
Eric H. 2001. Aquarium
Corals: Selection, Husbandry and Natural History
T.F. H Publications. 464 pp
- Wee Y.C.
and Peter K. L. Ng. 1994. A First Look at Biodiversity in Singapore.
National Council on the Environment. 163pp.
- Ng, P. K.
L. & Y. C. Wee, 1994. The
Singapore Red Data Book: Threatened Plants and Animals of Singapore.
The Nature Society (Singapore), Singapore. 343 pp.