seen? Disk corals (Turbinaria spp.) are among our
most commonly encountered hard corals and seen on many of our Southern
shores and even some Northern shores. Cave corals (Tubastrea
sp.) are small hard corals usually seen in dark places.
Only Turbinaria is commonly considered reef-building. Disk
corals (Turbinaria spp.) are among the most commonly encountered
of this family on Singapore's intertidal shores. They may be flat
plates which may be folded into vase-shapes or lettuce-like forms.
They may also be encrusting. Some can be large (20-50cm).
Dendrophyllia species are similiar in appearance and habits
species. These corals form small colonies (2-4cm).
Status and threats: Some corals
of the Family Dendrophylliidae recorded for Singapore are listed as
globally threatened by
the IUCN. Like other creatures of the intertidal zone, they are
affected by human activities such as reclamation and pollution. Trampling
by careless visitors, and over-collection also have an impact on local
Dendrophyllidae recorded for Singapore
Danwei Huang, Karenne P. P. Tun, L. M Chou and Peter A. Todd. 30 Dec
2009. An inventory of zooxanthellate sclerectinian corals in Singapore
including 33 new records **the species found on many shores in
in red are those listed as threatened
on the IUCN global list.
* from Wee
Y.C. and Peter K. L. Ng. 1994. A First Look at Biodiversity in
corals (Dendrophyllia and Tubastraea species)
with list of species recorded for Singapore
Turbinaria sp. (Disk corals)
with list of species recorded for Singapore.
(select species from list) on Corals of the World online on the
Australian Institute of Marine Science website: Technical fact
on Reef Corals of the Indo-Malayan Seas, the Marine Species Identification
Portal: Technical fact sheet.
Dendrophylliidae (enter Dendrophylliidae in search bar) on
the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species website: Technical fact
- Danwei Huang,
Karenne P. P. Tun, L. M Chou and Peter A. Todd. 30 Dec 2009. An
inventory of zooxanthellate sclerectinian corals in Singapore
including 33 new records (pdf). Raffles Bulletin of Zoology
Supplement No. 22: 69-80.
- Veron, Jen.
of the World Australian Institute of Marine Science, Australia. 3 volumes.
- Chou, L.
M., 1998. A
Guide to the Coral Reef Life of Singapore. Singapore Science
Centre. 128 pages.
- Chou Loke
Meng. 1989. Hard corals of Singapore. Reef Ecology Study
Team, the National University of Singapore. A set of 4 posters.
Harry and Daniel Knop. 2005. Corals:
Indo-Pacific Field Guide IKAN-Unterwasserachiv, Frankfurt. 305 pp.
Eric H. 2001. Aquarium
Corals: Selection, Husbandry and Natural History T.F. H Publications. 464 pp
- Wee Y.C.
and Peter K. L. Ng. 1994. A First Look at Biodiversity in Singapore.
National Council on the Environment. 163pp.
- Ng, P. K.
L. & Y. C. Wee, 1994. The
Singapore Red Data Book: Threatened Plants and Animals of Singapore.
The Nature Society (Singapore), Singapore. 343 pp.