seen? These corals with tiny corallites are commonly seen
on many of our Southern shores, especially the kind that forms crinkled
colonies. Those that form smooth boulder shapes are less commonly
Features: Colonies 15-30cm.
The colony may be shaped like boulders, pillars, flattened branches
or even be encrusting or plate-like. The tiny corallites don't stick
much out of the surface and merely give the skeleton a granular texture
which gives the common name. When the polyp is retracted, the tiny
holes of the corallite look like tiny petals of a flower. Polyps tiny
(0.2cm) with short pointy tentacles. With the tentacles extended,
the colony has a furry look.
It's hard to distinguish the different species of Psammocora without close examination of small features. On this website, they
are grouped into boulder sandpaper coral (colony is boulder-shaped) and crinkled
sand paper coral (colony has short crinkled branches).
Sandpapery home: Those that are branching often have tiny
animals among their branches.
Status and threats: Some Psammocora species recorded for Singapore are listed as globally Near Threatened by
the IUCN. Like other creatures of the intertidal zone, they are
affected by human activities such as reclamation and pollution. Trampling
by careless visitors, and over-collection also have an impact on local
Tiny petal-shaped holes.
Granular surface giving their common
name of sandpaper coral.
A tiny shrimp.
Sentosa, Oct 04
corals on Singapore shores
|Family Psammocoridae recorded for Singapore
Danwei Huang, Karenne P. P. Tun, L. M Chou and Peter A. Todd. 30 Dec
2009. An inventory of zooxanthellate sclerectinian corals in Singapore
including 33 new records
**the species found on many shores in
in red are those listed as threatened
on the IUCN global list.
corals seen awaiting identification
are difficult to positively identify without close examination.
On this website, they are grouped by external features for convenience
Psammocora contigua (Near
Psammocora digitata** (Near
- Danwei Huang,
Karenne P. P. Tun, L. M Chou and Peter A. Todd. 30 Dec 2009. An
inventory of zooxanthellate sclerectinian corals in Singapore
including 33 new records (pdf). Raffles Bulletin of Zoology
Supplement No. 22: 69-80.
- Veron, Jen.
of the World Australian Institute of Marine Science, Australia. 3 volumes.
- Chou, L.
M., 1998. A
Guide to the Coral Reef Life of Singapore. Singapore Science
Centre. 128 pages.
Harry and Daniel Knop. 2005. Corals:
Indo-Pacific Field Guide IKAN-Unterwasserachiv, Frankfurt. 305 pp.
Eric H. 2001. Aquarium
Corals: Selection, Husbandry and Natural History T.F. H Publications. 464 pp.