seen? These hard corals are among those commonly seen on
many of our shores. They are more commonly seen on our Southern shores.
Features: Colonies (10-15cm) boulder-shaped
or form short fat columns with rounded tops. The corallites are small
to tiny (0.2-0.5cm) circular or polygonal, packed close to one another.
The skeleton is porous. Some have polyps with long bodies and long
tentacles. In these, with the polyps extended, the skeleton is hidden
and the entire colony is often mistaken for a sea anemone. Others
have polyps with short bodies and tentacles, yet others have tiny
polyps. Polyps have 24 tentacles and can retract completely into the
It's hard to distinguish the different species without close examination.
On this website, they are grouped into anemone
corals (with long polyps) and small goniopora
corals (with tiny polyps) for convenience of display.
Sometimes, tiny brown acoel
flatworms are seen on the oral disk or body columns of anemone
Anemone coral babies: Goniopora
corals may reproduce by producing balls of polyps.
Human uses: Goniopora corals do
poorly in captivity because they need lots of plankton, especially
plant plankton. Those kept in aquariums usually die a slow death of
Status and threats: Some Goniopora
species recorded in Singapore are listed as globally Near Threatened
the IUCN. Like other creatures of the intertidal zone, they are
affected by human activities such as reclamation and pollution. Trampling
by careless visitors, and over-collection also have an impact on local
Larger polyps of Anemone coral compared with smaller Small goniopora
*Species are difficult
to positively identify without close examination.
On this website, they are grouped by external features for convenience of
species recorded for Singapore
Danwei Huang, Karenne P. P. Tun, L. M Chou and Peter A. Todd. 30 Dec
2009. An inventory of zooxanthellate sclerectinian corals in Singapore
including 33 new records **the species found on many shores in
in red are those listed as threatened
on the IUCN global list.
based on in Veron, Jen. 2000. Corals of the World.
corals seen awaiting identification
are difficult to positively identify without close examination.
On this website, they are grouped by external features for convenience
1: Boulder-shaped (massive) with large corallites (more than
5mm in diameter)
Goniopora stokesi (Near Threatened)
Group 2: Branching or column-shaped (columnar) with large
corallites (more than 5mm in diameter)
Goniopora columna** (Near Threatened)
Goniopora lobata** (Near Threatened)
Group 3: Encrusting
Group 5: Branching or column-shaped (columnar) with medium
corallites (3-5mm in diameter)
Group 6: With small corallites (less than 3mm in diameter)
- Danwei Huang,
Karenne P. P. Tun, L. M Chou and Peter A. Todd. 30 Dec 2009. An
inventory of zooxanthellate sclerectinian corals in Singapore
including 33 new records (pdf). Raffles Bulletin of Zoology
Supplement No. 22: 69-80.
- Veron, Jen.
of the World Australian Institute of Marine Science, Australia. 3 volumes.
- Chou, L.
M., 1998. A
Guide to the Coral Reef Life of Singapore. Singapore Science
Centre. 128 pages.
Harry and Daniel Knop. 2005. Corals:
Indo-Pacific Field Guide IKAN-Unterwasserachiv, Frankfurt. 305 pp.
Eric H. 2001. Aquarium
Corals: Selection, Husbandry and Natural History T.F. H Publications. 464 pp.