hard corals text index | photo index
Phylum Cnidaria > Class Anthozoa > Subclass Zoantharia/Hexacorallia
Photo index of hard corals on Singapore shores
Colony leafy, carnation- or cabbage-like

Lettuce coral
Pavona sp.

Castle coral
Pachyseris rugosa

Carnation coral
Pectinia sp.
Colonies 10-15cm, compact bush with a leafy structure. Surface with fine ridges in a distrinctive pattern. Tiny polyps with spindly tentacles. Colours seen include blue, lilac, brown, orangey and yellow. Sometimes seen on some of our Southern shores. Colony (10-30cm across) plates, encrusting or upright, irregular and contorted. Surface with short thick ridges that form maze-like patterns, perpendicular to the colony edge. Colours seen include brown, green and blue. Rarely seen, on our Southern shores. Colonies 10-15cm. frilly carnation-like shapes. Walls thin, tall, fluted, forming a maze-like pattern with deep valleys. Tentalces rarely seen. Colours brown, yellow, orange, green, blue, purple, often with a sheen of two contrasting colours. Seen on our Southern shores.    

Cabbage coral
Trachyphyllia geoffroyi

Flowery disk coral
Turbinaria sp.

Ruffled disk coral
Turbinaria sp.

Solitary free-living coral 15-20cm. Meandering folded form with wide valleys and tall walls. Sometimes called Banana coral because, when submerged, the polyp inflates into smooth curved shapes. Rarely seen, on our Southern shores. Colonies 20-50cm, plate-like thick (1cm) often folded so colony resembles a cabbage. Sometimes columns from the centre. Corallites depression, polyps large (1-1.5cm) with many fat tentacles. Colours various pastel shades. Commonly seen on many of our shores. Colonies 20-50cm, plate-like thick (1cm) often folded into ruffles. Corallites conical, polyps small (0.5cm) with many short tentacles. Colours pale pinkish, yellow, dark brown with yellow edges, pale green with pink edges. Seen on our Southern shores.    

photo index of
cnidarians on this site
Phylum Cnidaria
with hard skeleton

polyp shape
long tentacles

colony shape



  thick branches
thin branches
  Corallite shape=
brain or maze


colony unattached
(mushroom hard coral)
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