Photo index of mangrove trees on Singapore shores
trees with long fruits and buttressed roots

Bakau putih
Bruguiera cylindrica

Brugueira gymnorrhiza

Bakau mata buaya
Brugueira hainesii


Brugueira parviflora

Tumu berau
Brugueira sexangula
Shrub to short tree (2-3m). Short buttress and knee roots. Leaves oval, green stiff. Stipules pale yellow or greenish. Flowers small in clusters, with 8-lobed calyx. Hypocotyl thin, sepals bend towards stalk. Commonly seen in our back mangroves. Tree (to 15m). Buttress and knee roots. Leaves oval, shiny green and stiff. Stipules often reddish. Flowers large, one per leaf angle.12-14 lobed calyx that is bright red in the sun but may be yellowish in the shade. Petals tipped with tassels. Hypocotyl fat cigar-shaped with sepals clasping the hypocotyl (not bent towards the stalk). Sometimes seen in our mangroves. Tree (to 33m). Short buttress and knee roots.Leaves oval (9-16cm long). Flowers larger than B. cylindrica (about 2cm) in clusters of 2-3 flowers. Calyx with 10 stout long lobes. Hypocotyl is cigar-shaped (1-9cm) slightly curved. The calyx lobes are extended at right angles to the hypocotyl. Rare. It is Critically Endangered. Shrub to small tree (5-15m). Leaves oval (7-13cm). Flower with long slender calyx and 8 short lobes. Hypocotyl thin, smooth, long (8-13cm long) slightly curved, the calyx lobes clasping the propagule (not bent towards the stalk). Rare. It is Endangered. Tree (up to 12m). May have prop, stilt and knee roots. Leaves leathery. Stipules yellowish. Flowers large, occurs singly, 10-12 lobed calyx usually yellow, yellowish-brown, never conspicously scarlet although may be reddish. Flowers occur singly. Petals with blunt tip with 1-2 short bristles or hairless. Hypocotyl fat, angular, ridged (6-8cm long). Rare. It is Critically Endangered.

Tengar putih
Ceriops tagal
Bush to tree (to 20m), but in Singapore much shorter. Sometimes with buttress or knee roots. Leaves spatula-shaped with oval ends (7-10cm). Flowers clustered, tiny white petals that turn orange-brown. Fruit brown and smooth without any texture. Propagule sharply angular (15-25cm long) with a white collar when ready to drop off. Sometimes seen in our mangroves.It is Vulnerable.
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photo index of
plants on this site
all plants

mangrove & seashore plants
climbers, vines
palms, pandans

mangrove & seashore

thick/leathery leaves
thin leaves


type of leaves
small simple
large simple
compound, others

mangrove trees
small oval fruits and pneumatophores

long cylindrical fruits
with knee roots
with buttressed roots
with stilt roots

large round fruits

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