mangroves | coastal plants
Photo index of mangrove and seashore plants on Singapore shores
shrubs with thick, succulent or leathery leaves
growing at or above the high water mark near the sea shore

Mata pelandok

Ardisia elliptica

Bedara laut
Ximenia americana

Merambong/Sea lettuce
Scaevola taccada

Teruntum merah

Lumnitzera littorea

Teruntum putih

Lumnitzera racemosa
Shrub to small tree (5m). Leaves (10cm) leathery.
Flower (1cm) pink, star-shaped. Fruit (0.5-1cm) red berries ripening to black. Rarely seen in the wild but commonly planted in coastal parks. It is Endangered.
Shrub or small tree (2-4m) with thorny branches. Leaves (3-4cm) leathery. Fruits oval (2cm), thin-skinned, yellow to orange with firm green flesh. Flowers small (2-2.5cm) white hairy, in clusters. Can be common on some of our wild shores. Shrub to small tree (3m). Leaves thick succulent (15-25cm). Flowers (2cm) distinctive 'split' petals, usually white, but sometimes with violet stripes. Fruit small (1-1.5cm) fleshy, green ripening to white. Commonly seen on many of our shores. Shrub to tall tree (25m). Leaves spatula-shaped (2-8cm), thick and fleshy. Flowers small (2-3cm) in dense bunches, bright red. Fruits small, ribbed, corky and float. Bark dark, deeply fissured. Some may have slender knee roots. Sometimes seen in the back mangroves. It is Endangered. Shrub or tree (8m). Leaves spatula-shaped (2-10cm). Flowers small (1-2cm) in bunches, white. Fruits small, ribbed, fibrous and float. Bark reddish-brown, fissured. No pneumatophores. Sometimes seen in the back mangroves. It is Endangered.

Scyphiphora hydrophyllacea

Sea holly
or Jeruju
Acanthus sp.


Aegiceras corniculatum

Dungun air

Brownlowia tersa


Kandelia candel
Shrub (2-3m). Leaves spoon-shaped, leathery (3-5cm), shiny green. Flowers white, in dense clusters (3-4cm). Fruit oblong with 6-8 ridges, green ripening to white. Sometimes seen in our mangroves and on our shores. Sprawling shrub (50-80cm) to small tree (2m tall). Leaves (10-16cm) waxy, stiff, dark green and may be lobed and spiny, or oval and lack spines. Flowers in an upright spike. Fruit a capsule (2-3cm). Commonly seen in the back mangroves on many shores. Some species are Vulnerable. Shrub or low tree (6m tall). Leaves (4-8cm) thick, leathery glossy. Flowers white or pale pink in a ball-like cluster. Fruit long (5-8cm) cylindrical with pointed tip, usually curved. Rare. It is Endangered. Shrub (1.5-2 m). Leaves narrow and oval, thin or leathery (8-12cm). Glossy upperside, grey-green silvery underside, leaves spirally alternate. Flowers tiny (less than 1cm) pink petals with a yellow base, slightly longer than the calyx. Fruits tiny (1.5cm) a woody capsule or nut. Rare. It is Critically Endangered. Shrub to tree 7m. Leaves narrow oblong or elliptic (7-12cm), shiny green, opposite. Flowers (1.5-2cm long) white. Propagule slender (25-40cm long) and tapered at each end, capped by the persistent sepals. Very rare. It is Critically Endangered.

Limau hantu
Suregada multiflora

Pemphis acidula

Limau lelang
Merope angulata

Kelat nasi nasi
Syzygium zeylanicum
Small tree. Fleshy narrow leaves (5-7cm). Flowers small in clusters. Fruits resemble small limes, ripening orange, splitting to reveal white pulp. Planted at Changi. Small tree (7-10m) more usually a short bush (1-2m). Leaves small, greyish green silky. Flowers small with six delicate white petals. Fruit a capsule with many small seeds. Rare. Shrub (3m) or scrambling plant. Leaves (7-16cm) leathery, arranged alternately with lime-like scent when crushed. Stout spines. Flowers small white petals. Fruits (2.5-4cm) yellow, resembling a lemon with three flat sides. Rare. Shrub (2-4m) or short tree. Leaves (4-5cm) leathery, arranged opposite. Inflorescence of dense fluffy white flowers (1cm). Fruits (1cm) oblong, white. Sometimes seen on wild in coastal forests, also cultivated.
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photo index of
plants on this site
all plants

mangrove & seashore plants
climbers, vines
palms, pandans

mangrove &
thick/leathery leaves
thin leaves


types of leaves
small simple
large simple
compound, others

mangrove trees
small oval fruits and pneumatophores

long cylindrical fruits
with knee roots
with buttressed roots
with stilt roots

large round fruits

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