Photo index of mangrove trees on Singapore shores
trees with large round fruits

Sonneratia caseolaris

Sonneratia alba

Sonneratia ovata
Tree (to 15m). Young branches hang down like weeping willow. Leaves nearly circular or oval (6-8cm). Flowers with petals narrow and dark red, many long white stamens that are pink at the base. Sepals broadly triangular and yellowish greenish on the inside. Fruit with calyx lobes flat, spreading out horizontally.Rare. Planted at Sungei Buloh, Chek Jawa and Pasir Ris. It is Critically Endangered. Tree (3-15m). Leaves nearly circular (5-12.5cm). Young leaves are pale green with pink blush at tip. Flowers with petals narrow and white, many long all-white stamens. Sepals red on the inside. Fruit somewhat pear-shaped, sepal tips bend back towards the stalk. Conical pneumatophores. Commonly seen on the seaward side of mangroves. Small tree (to 5m). Leaves oval (5-7cm) . Flowers without petals, sepals reddish on the inside. Calyx lobes clasp the fruit. Rare. Planted at Pasir Ris. It is Critically Endangered.    

Mangrove cannon-ball
or Nyireh bunga
Xylocarpus granatum

Nyireh batu
Xylocarpus moluccensis

Xylocarpus rumphii
Tree (3-8m). Bark peeling, with sinuous buttress roots. Compound leaf: leaflets are oblong with rounded tips. Flowers tiny white to pinkish in clusters. Fruit globular large (10-25cm) resembles bowling-ball, brown with corky seeds. Commonly seen in our mangroves. Tree (5-20m). Bark fissured, with no or peg-like pneuma-tophores . Compound leaf: leaflets with more pointed tips. Flowers tiny white to pinkish in clusters. Fruit elliptical (8-12cm). Sometimes seen in our mangroves. It is Endangered. Tree (8-10m). Bark fissured, no specialised roots. Leaves oval to heart-shaped with obvious pale veins. Young fruits small, appear in clusters. Rare. Usually seen only on rocky shores typically among boulders under natural cliffs. It is Critically Endangered.
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photo index of
plants on this site
all plants

mangrove & seashore plants
climbers, vines
palms, pandans

mangrove & seashore

thick/leathery leaves
thin leaves


type of leaves
small simple
large simple
compound, others

mangrove trees
small oval fruits and pneumatophores

long cylindrical fruits
with knee roots
with buttressed roots
with stilt roots

large round fruits

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