plants text index | photo index
Photo index of mangrove trees on Singapore shores
trees with small fruits and pneumatophores (pencil roots)

Api-api putih

Avicennia alba

Api-api bulu

Avicennia rumphiana

Api-api ludat
Avicennia officinalis

Api-api jambu

Avicennia marina
Shrub or tree (10-20m). Pneumatophores pencil-like, ( 20cm). May have stilt roots. Leaves generally long and pointed (8-12cm), shiny dark green above, white below. Flowers yellow small (0.4cm), in clusters that are less crowded together. Fruit generally long, tear-drop shaped (1-4cm) with long tapering pointed tip. Commonly seen in many of our mangroves, usually on the seaward side. Tree (to 30m). Pencil-like pneumatophores, often with buttress roots. Leaves often spoon-shaped (8-10cm). Green above, below olive or brownish with a velvety or furry texture. Flowers large orange-yellow (1-1.5cm) in a tight cluster. Fruit a fat oval shape (1.5-2cm long), woolly, yellowish brown and often wrinkled. Sometimes seen in our mangroves.. Tree (to 12m). Pencil-like pneumatophores. Often develops aerial stilt roots. Leaves often spoon-shaped sometimes not (8-10cm). Upperside shiny green, underside finely hairy, greenish yellow but never white. Flowers large orange-yellow (about 1cm) in a tight cluster. Fruit oval, slightly beaked (2-3cm) velvety, pale grey-green. Sometimes seen in our mangroves. Tree (2-3m). Pneumatophores slender with pointed tips (10-15cm). Leaves similar to A. alba in shape and also has a whitish below. Flowers big (0.3-0.6cm) in tight clusters. Fruit large (2cm), circular flattened, greyish or bluish green, never yellowish. Stems squarish. Rare. It is Critically Endangered.  

Trees with large round fruits and pneumatophores

photo index of
plants on this site
all plants

mangrove & seashore plants
climbers, vines
palms, pandans

mangrove & seashore

thick/leathery leaves
thin leaves


type of leaves
small simple
large simple
compound, others

mangrove trees
small oval fruits and pneumatophores

long cylindrical fruits
with knee roots
with buttressed roots
with stilt roots

large round fruits

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